by Fridolin Richter & Sebastian Kommer
Brand name: VESTAMID® Terra DS
Raw material: Castor oil
Carbon Footprint: 4.0 kg CO2eq.
Processing temp.: 220 – 250 °C
Drying temp.: 80 – 100 °C
high mechanical strength
good UV and chemical resistance
high light transmission
can be used at high temperatures
Castor oil is extracted from the seeds of the African miracle tree, a spurge plant. The castor plant grows mainly in India, Brazil and China. About 550,000 tonnes of the oil are traded annually, Germany imports more than 30,000 tonnes per year. PA10.10 granules are produced by EVONIK in a plant near Shanghai.
PA 10.10 is synthesised from 1,10-decamethylenediamine and sebacic acid. The monomers are derived from castor oil, making PA 10.10 a material that is 100% based on biological resources.
Scientific name: Linum usitatissimum
Family: Linaceae (Flax family)
Uses: Fibre and oil extraction
Growing areas in Europe: Russia, Belgium, Holland & France
Height: 60 to 100 cm
Origin: Findings prove the use of flax fibre already in the younger Stone Age. About 6000 to 8000 years ago, the cultivated plant was grown by the Sumerians and Egyptians.
High-quality flax production was of great economic importance in the 16th century. Subsequently, however, flax was increasingly displaced by the import of cotton.
Flax (linseed) is an annual herbaceous plant. Fibres are obtained from the stem axis and oil from the seeds. Through selective breeding, the capsules of the oil flax remain closed after ripening so that the seeds can be harvested without loss. Flax or linen fibre is obtained from the stems of the flax plant and is one of the bast fibres.
Fibre type: Natural fibre
Origin: Common flax
Fibre length: Single fibre 9-70 mm
Fibre bundle: 250-1200 mm
Fibre diameter: 5-38 µm
Density: 1.4 g/cm³
Tensile strength: 0.90 GPa
Specific tensile strength: 0.60 GPa
Modulus of elasticity: 85 GPa
The 2.5 to 6 centimetre long elementary fibres of cellulose are connected by pectins to form the 50 to 90 centimetre long fibre bundles, the technical fibres.
Other components of the fibre are hemicellulose and lignin. The amount of the individual components depends on the degree of maturity of the fibre. On average, a flax fibre consists of 71 % cellulose, 18.6 to 20.6 % hemicellulose, 2.3 % pectin and 2.2 % lignin and about 1.7 % wax, which is mostly found on the surface of the fibre.